Over time, diabetes can damage your eyes resulting in vision loss and even blindness. There are several eye diseases that can affect people with diabetes. They include:
Diabetic retinopathy: The condition occurs when high blood sugar damages blood vessels in the retina, which is the light-sensitive layer of cells in the back of the eye. The damaged blood vessels can swell and leak. The result is blurry vision or blood flow stops. New blood vessels may grow, but they are not normal and can cause further vision problems. The condition usually affects both eyes.
Diabetic macular edema: An eye condition that can result from diabetes and is characterized by swelling in the central part of the retina called the macula. While the retina receives, organizes, and sends information to the brain to enable you to see; the macula, which is near the center of the retina, allows you to see objects in sharp detail. Swelling or edema can cause vision problems, which may lead to blindness. Macular edema usually develops along with diabetic retinopathy.
Two other vision problems that can be the result of diabetes are:
Cataracts: If you have diabetes, you are more likely to develop cataracts, which are cloudy lenses. High blood sugar levels can cause deposits to build up in the lenses of the eye causing the cloudiness.
Glaucoma: Glaucoma is a group of eye diseases that damage the optic nerve because of too much pressure in the eye. People with diabetes are twice as likely to develop open-angle glaucoma, which is the most common type of the eye disease. Diabetes also can cause neovascular glaucoma, can be associated with diabetic retinopathy. New and abnormal blood vessels grow on the iris. The new vessels can block the flow of fluid out of the eye, raising the pressure. 
Prevent diabetic eye disease
You will need to manage your disease working with your ophthalmologist to prevent getting any one of these eye conditions. The American Academy of Ophthalmology (AAO) also recommends the following steps:
Annual eye exam: Have an annual dilated eye exam at least once a year since in its early stages, there may be no signs of diabetic eye disease. When your eyes are dilated, your ophthalmologist can examine the retina and optic nerves thoroughly to look for signs of eye damage before there are changes to your vision. If there are signs of the disease, your doctor can begin treatment immediately.
Control your blood sugar: Control your blood glucose levels to prevent the problems that can result, including blurry vision caused by changes in the shape of your eye and damaged blood vessels.
Maintain healthy blood pressure and cholesterol levels: High blood pressure and high cholesterol can put you at greater risk for eye disease and vision loss.
Exercise: Exercise is not only good for diabetes management, it is good for your eyes, too.
A study on animal subjects suggests that exercise boosts the eye’s resilience. It may protect against the overgrowth of blood vessels, which occur in neovascular glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration, and diabetic retinopathy. 
Manage your diabetes and get regular eye exams to prevent diabetic vision problems. If they develop, taking these actions can help vision problems from getting worse.
 “Vision Loss,” CDC, Accessed April 9, 2023. https://www.cdc.gov/diabetes/managing/diabetes-vision-loss.html
 “What is Diabetic Macular Edema,” Mayo Clinic, Accessed April 9, 2023. https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/diabetic-retinopathy/in-depth/what-is-diabetic-macular-edema/art-20544200?msclkid=8236d269f48f1e9311a4b65abaa58a7c
 “Vision Loss,” CDC
 Boyd, Kierstan, “Prevent Diabetic Eye Disease in 5 Steps,” American Academy of Ophthalmology, September 20, 2021. https://www.aao.org/eye-health/tips-prevention/top-five-diabetes-steps
 Mukamal, Reena, “Exercise May Stave Off Eye Disease, Study Finds,” American Academy of Ophthalmology, October 16, 2020. https://www.aao.org/eye-health/news/exercise-may-slow-prevent-eye-disease-study-finds