Neuropathy is a common complication of diabetes that can affect the nerves that control movement, sensation, and other functions. In fact, neuropathy may even be the first sign of diabetes. Over time, high blood glucose levels or blood sugar, and high levels of fats, such as triglycerides, in the blood from diabetes can damage nerves. When this happens, the nervous system’s signaling can no longer work correctly. High blood glucose levels also can damage blood vessels, including those that carry oxygen and nutrients to the nerves. This also stops nerves from fully functioning. 
There are several types of neuropathies, among them:
Peripheral: Affects the peripheral nervous system, resulting in pain and numbness in the extremities, including arms, hands, legs, feet, and toes. Since peripheral neuropathy can cause numbness, someone with diabetes might not feel a foot injury, cut or even a blister that could result in an ulcer. Foot ulcers are a considerable problem for people with diabetes often leading to hospitalization. Research suggests that up to one-half of people with diabetes have peripheral neuropathy. 
Proximal: Pain and numbness in the upper legs, specifically the buttocks, thighs, and hips. This type of nerve damage typically affects one side of the body and may rarely spread to the other side. It is more common in men than in women and more common in people older than age 50. Most people with this condition have type 2 diabetes.
Autonomic: This nerve damage disturbs signal processing between the autonomic nervous system (controls automatic bodily functions such as blood pressure, bladder function and digestion) and the brain.
Focal: Sudden loss of function in nerves causing pain and weakness of the muscles. Carpal tunnel syndrome is a type of focal neuropathy.
Diagnosing diabetic neuropathy
Since not all foot or limb pain means neuropathy, doctors will consider medical history, clinical examination, and lab tests. Testing may include checking for muscle strength and reflexes and checking muscle sensitivity to position, vibration, and temperature. There may be additional tests such as ultrasound to assess functioning of the urinary tract or electromyography to assess how the muscles respond to electrical impulses among others. 
Neuropathy caused by diabetes cannot be reversed, since the body cannot naturally repair damaged nerve tissues.  Since diabetic neuropathy can cause chronic pain and other complications, such as dizziness or weakness, gastrointestinal or urinary problems, there are a variety of treatments. Pain medications, antidepressants, relaxation training, acupuncture, and topical creams are some of the types of treatments. 
Reducing further harm
Keeping blood sugars within the target range is critical, which involves healthy eating. The key to healthy eating is a diet of foods from all the food groups - vegetables, fruits, grains, protein, and dairy (nonfat or low fat) - in the amount established in a meal plan tailored to specific needs.
In addition to eating healthy to keep blood sugars in the target range, diabetics should check their feet daily for:
- Dry and cracked skin
- Blisters or sores
- Bruises or cuts
- Redness, warmth, or tenderness (often absent because of nerve damage)
- Firm or hard spots
If peripheral neuropathy is detected, focus on keeping feet healthy and managing pain.
For moisturizing feet consider EASE-Z Diabetics’ Dry Skin Therapy Foot Cream. It was developed specifically to relieve and protect dry, cracked skin associated with diabetes. The over-the-counter offerings uniquely feature active Zinc Acetate to relieve and protect. It is unscented and non-greasy for added comfort. Learn more about Ease-Z. Diabetics’ Dry Skin Therapy Foot Cream.
 “Diabetic Neuropathy,” John Hopkins Medicine, Accessed May 17, 2023. https://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/health/conditions-and-diseases/diabetes/diabetic-neuropathy-nerve-problems
 Huizen, Jennifer, “Is it possible to reverse diabetic neuropathy,” Medical News Today, May 7, 2019. https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/317923
 “What is Diabetic Neuropathy,” National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK),” Accessed May 24, 2023. https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/diabetes/overview/preventing-problems/nerve-damage-diabetic-neuropathies/what-is-diabetic-neuropathy#causes-dn
 “Proximal Neuropathy,” National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Disease (NIDDK), Accessed May 24, 2023 https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/diabetes/overview/preventing-problems/nerve-damage-diabetic-neuropathies/proximal-neuropathy
 “Diabetic Neuropathy,” John Hopkins
 Neel, Duggal, “Diabetic Neuropathy: Can It Be Reversed,” healthline, February 6, 2020. https://www.healthline.com/health/diabetes/can-diabetic-neuropathy-be-reversed
 “Diabetic Neuropathy, John Hopkins